There are three basic needs that a man possesses food, clothing, and shelter. The global textile and clothing industry is bound to be huge, as it fulfils the second basic requirement of man. It is worth $480 billion at present and is expected to reach $700 billion, shortly. This is because people are getting increasingly conscious of the way they dress. It has become a means to create an impression and represent their personality. Everybody wants to strike an impression with different and fashionable clothes.
Air pollution caused by the textile industry is also a major cause of concern. Boilers, thermo pack, and diesel generators produce pollutants that are released into the air. The pollutants generated include Suspended Particulate Matter (SPM), sulphur dioxide gas, oxide of nitrogen gas, etc. The nearby areas with human population get affected adversely owing to the release of toxic gas into the atmosphere.
It has become utterly necessary to reduce the pollutants emitted by the textile industry. Contamination of the air, water, and land by textile industries and its raw material manufacturing units has become a serious threat to the environment.
The fashion industry is one of the major polluting industries in the world The production and distribution of the crops, fibers, and garments used in fashion all contribute to differing forms of environmental pollution, including water, air, and soil pollution. The textile industry is the second greatest polluter of local freshwater in the world. Some of the main factors that contribute to this industrial caused pollution are the vast overproduction of fashion items, the use of synthetic fibers, and the agriculture pollution of fashion crops.
The amount of new garments bought by Americans has tripled since the 1960s. This exponential increase causes the need for more resources, and the need for a speedier process from which clothes are produced. One of the main contributors to the rapid production of pollution is the rapid production of clothes due to the rapid consumption of customers. Every year the world as a whole consumes more than 80 billion items of clothing. Those clothes contribute to resource pollution and waste pollution, due to the fact that most of these items will one day be thrown out. People are consuming more and they want it for cheaper prices. And the companies producing these cheap items who are making a profit want the clothes as fast as possible; this creates a trend called fast fashion. Fast fashion is “an approach to the design, creation, and marketing of clothing fashions that emphasizes making fashion trends quickly and cheaply available to consumers.] The idea is that speedy mass production combined with cheap labor will make clothes cheaper for those buying them, thus allowing these fast fashion trends to maintain economic success. The main concern with fast fashion is the clothes waste it produces. According to the Environmental Protection Agency 15.1 million tons of textile clothing Waste was produced in 2013 alone When textile clothing ends up in landfills the chemicals on the clothes, such as the dye, can cause environmental damage by leaching the chemicals into the ground. The excess waste also contributes to the issue of using so many sites just to store waste and garbage. When unsold clothes are burned [ it releases CO2 into the atmosphere. As per a World Resources Institute report, 1.2 billion tons of CO2 is released in the atmosphere per year by fast fashion industry. In 2019, it was announced that France was making an effort to prevent companies from this practice of burning unsold fashion items.
Synthetic fibers and natural fibers:
Now that there is continuous increase in the amount of clothing that is consumed, another issue that arises is that the clothing is no longer made from natural materials/crops. Clothing used to be produced by mainly “natural fibers” such as wool, cotton or silk. Now there is a switch from natural fibers to inexpensive synthetic textile fibers such as polyester or nylon. Polyester is one of the most popular fibers used in fashion today, it is found in about 60% of garments in retail stores, that is about 21.3 million tons of polyester. The popularity of polyester keep increasing as well, seeing as there was a 157 percent increase of polyester clothing consumption from 2000 to 2015. Synthetic polyester is made from a chemical reaction of coal, petroleum, air and water two of which are fossil fuels. Polyester is “non-biodegradable” meaning it can never be converted to a state that is naturally found in the natural world. Due to all of the time and resources it takes to make polyester and it never being able to revert to a state that can contribute to any natural nutrient cycles polyester can be considered energy intensive with no net gain. When polyester clothing is washed micro plastics are shedding and entering the water system which is leading to micro pollution in water ways, including oceans.
Environmental and economic impact assessment of construction and demolition waste disposal using system dynamics Provide a decision support tool that aids in rethinking disposal waste.
Construction and demolition wastes (CDW) have increasingly serious problems in environmental, social, and economic realms. There is no coherent framework for utilization of these wastes which are disposed both legally and illegally. This harms the environment, contributes to the increase of energy consumption, and depletes finite landfills resources
- quantifying the total cost incurred to mitigate the impacts of CDW landfills and uncollected waste on the environment and human health;
- quantifying the total avoided emissions and saved energy by recycling waste;
- estimating total external cost saved b recycling waste and
- providing a decision support tool that helps in re-thinking about waste disposal.
The proposed evaluation methodology allows reuse of the waste by recasting same to get desired strength using suitable additives and save environment along with precious land banks.
Construction and demolition waste (C&DW) arises mainly as by-products of rapid urbanisation activities. C&DW materials have high potential for recycling and reusing. Despite its potential, landfilling is still the most common disposal method. The purpose of this activity is to access the environmental impacts caused by landfilling and the alternatives especially in assessing the damages to human health, ecosystems, and to the resources in the future 10 y. It aims to identify the better alternatives in reducing the environmental impacts of landfilling C&DW. Life cycle assessment (LCA) used in this study assessed the environmental impacts associated with all stages, from waste production to end-of-life of waste material. LCA can help to avoid the short-sighted, quick-fix landfilling as the main solution for C&DW by systematically compiling an inventory of energy, fuel, material inputs, and environmental outputs. The environmental impact of landfilling C&DW is estimated to increase 20.2 % if the business as usual landfilling continues to the year 2025. Recycling will reduce 46.0 % of total damages and with the shorter travel distance, the environmental damage is further reduced by 82.3 %. Applying industrial building system (IBS) to reduce waste generation at-site reduced 98.1 % impacts as compared to landfilling scenario. The negative impacts derived from landfilling activity is significantly reduced by 99.5 % through shifting to IBS, recycling, and shorter the travel distance from construction sites to material recycling facilities (MRF). The what-if scenarios illustrated the alternatives future circumstances, the inclusion of the uncertainty concept, and define the future path of C&DW industry outlook. The outcome of this study is informative and useful to policymakers, particularly in defining the way forward of C&DW industry.
Introduction In developed countries, recycling of construction and demolition waste (C&DW) is regulated by law and policy such that the recycling rates have far surpassed 90 %. In Australia, almost 90 % of such waste was recycled (CCANZ, 2011), Japan’s recycling rate is 99.5 % in 2012 (MLIT, 2014), and Singapore has demonstrated the highest recycling rate of 99.9 % (NEA, 2016). Malaysia’s C&DW recovery rate remains at less than 50 % (UNCRD, 2015), a poor level attributed to a lack of institutional supporting policy, recycling programs, and recycling facilities in major cities. Notwithstanding legislation (Solid Waste and Public Cleansing Management Act 672) governing solid waste management in Malaysia (National Solid Waste Management Department, 2007), C&DW attracts significantly less attention than other forms of waste, such as municipal solid waste. In Lee et al. (2017) study, C&DW is not listed as a waste category in landfill even though C&DW is disposed together in MSW landfill.
It is necessary to take things forward from policy drafting and publishing steps to implementation and for that there is absolute necessary for active research and development of products and also life cycle analysis under various conditions and combination for each product before commercialisation.
C&DW, being both produced and managed mostly by the private sector, suffers from weak enforcement provisions. Lack of knowledge and awareness of waste recovery are the major hindrances against source separation and recycling. fact that most of the C&DW are inert materials and may not pose as great a threat as hazardous waste Landfilling of C&DW.
Depletes finite land banks. Contributes to the increase of energy consumption, increases greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, presents public health issues, and otherwise.
Contaminates the environment. The progression of a waste material through the successive stages of waste management and represents the preferable.
End-of-life for the waste material life cycle. Waste management hierarchy aims to extract and utilise the material to the optimum scenario such as to maximise the economic value, to minimise the environmental impacts. Although source reduction is the top priority in the waste management hierarchy, it is always not easily attainable.
Reuse of C&DW material can be achieved through building designs that support adaptation, disassembly, and reuse of the C&DW materials. Materials like soil, sand, gravel, and aggregate can be reused without reprocessing. Plywood for concrete casting is reusable up to a few cycles, depending of the wood material and after-use maintenance. At the end-of-life cycle, wood waste can be recycled into wood chip and utilised for bio-energy production. After reuse, recycling or down-cycling of C&DW material is the next preferred option. Most of the C&DW materials are potentially recyclable, should the right technology is applied. Life cycle assessment (LCA) addresses the environmental aspects and potential environmental impacts throughout a product’s life cycle, from raw material acquisition through production, use, end-of-life treatment, recycling and final disposal. In waste management, LCA is a useful tool used in conducting a systematic environmental impacts assessment of different waste management scenarios. Waste scenarios are the processes that refer to the material flows to end-of-life without observing the product characteristics. In waste scenarios, the information on waste material recycling processes are considered as subassemblies and the modelling of the subassemblies can be done through partial reuse or fully reuse operations.
As a solution to all these REMAT PRODUCTS DERIVED FROM DEBRIS/WASTE are recommended with following guidelines.
REMAT is an acronym for reclaimed materials, we have developed products which have additional properties like waterproofing and crack resistance using construction, domestic and industrial waste.
It’s imminent and obvious to find broken mix, dumped materials like concrete, sand and other materials in both new and old construction site.
In old site where demolition takes place we get additional waste like plastic, plaster mortar, along with the blocks concrete and tiles. These can be pulverized and casted to get new and better products like Pavers:
To name a few of the applications. These products come with waterproofing, crack resistance and good strength as products and are made with cement blended or based debris/waste along with plastic garment waste etc.
Process of production is simple air drying process and it is self-curing too.
Take combination of refuse in dry form and add AKWOSHIELD to it mix with water and cast to desired shape. When it comes to consolidation of soil mix AKWOSHIELD with cement and soil and goes for compacting. Mixing ratio depends on quality of soil and also debris used. For thumb-rule we are offering 10% of total mix quantity to be AKWOSHIELD, 20% cement and rest refused materials.
Some of the products from exclusive garment and weeds like parthenium waste are:
Process of formation is simple and air drying process. Hence it is green and eco-friendly. Mix PERFECTCOAT-SL with garment and plastic waste and cast it to desired application. This can be used for non-load bearing to medium load bearing structures. The definition is hypothetical as it depends on altitude, wind velocity and other factors which are variables. This can be upgraded to fire, chemical resistance and as such it is crack and water resistant.
All products are manufactured under license from Dr.(Hc) S.B.Raghunath and are under process of patent.