Pile driving hammers; functions and different types

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Pile driving hammer
Pile driving hammer

Pile driving hammers are specialized heavy machinery used for projects that require the use of deep foundations over shallow foundations. The site may need a deep foundation due to soil composition and other types of constraints such as working load faults, deviation of the steel Casing, excessive water in the pile, lateral movement and uplifting of adjacent piles, soil settlements etc. A strong and deep foundation is laid through piling. Pile drivers push piles deep into the ground either vertically or at an angle to the vertical. Piles are driven using a pile hammer. When a pile is driven into granular soil, it compacts the soi which leads to the densification of the soil mass.

Pile driving hammers are operated through hydraulics, steam power or diesel fuel. The large weight drives the pile into the earth. It is raised like a hammer and then, when it reaches the designated high point, it is released and the force of it falling drives the pile into the ground. Pile drivers can be static or mobile, depending on the amount of force needed and requirements of the job site. They come in different shapes, sizes and designs, offering flexibility for specific tasks.

Advantages of Pile Driving Hammers;

  1. They work on a variety of soil types and pile types.
  2. Can be used for steel, timber, or concrete piles.
  3. They’re fuel-efficient and self-contained.
  4. Controllable and Variable
  5. Stroke High Efficiency
  6. Blow Low Impact Velocity
  7. Faster Soil Driving and Extraction

Types of Pile Driving Hammers;

Hydraulic Hammers

The hydraulic hammer is a base machine for a variety of applications thanks to the high power engine, the parallelogram system, the torsion-resistant mast and a highly efficient hydraulic system The latest hydraulic hammers are equipped with control system designed to drive casing oscillators, rotary drills, vibrators and diaphragm walls grab.It also features rotating mast attachment, easy positioning, 360° working area, piling with angle up to 15°.  It is used for a wide range of applications such as sheet piling, pile driving, soil mixing, displacement pile etc. The hydraulic hammer is of two types namely – inner valve type and outer valve type. Both types have mostly the same components, such as a cylinder which is the most important part of the hydraulic system. A piston is also present in both types of a hydraulic hammer which converts kinetic energy into hammering energy and a front head is featured to support the machine, and one back head

Hydraulic Hammer

Vibratory Hammers

Vibratory Hammer is a hydraulic operated vibratory hammer used for driving sheet pile & H-Beam pile driving, casing pile as well as extracting the piles. It is simple and reliable, yet versatile, design allows for highly efficient, easy operation.Each hammer comes with a handheld remote control standard to allow for more comfortable and accurate operation, helping you get the job done with ease at any location. Using the remote control, you can easily start and stop the hammer, adjust its speed with ease and close the clamp. It also comes with an emergency stop function for your safety.i An efficient hydraulic vibratory hammer that produces vertical vibrations to drive or extract a wide variety of pile profiles that will help you finish the job done in planned project schedule.It is used to drive tube and sheet piles in/out of the ground for constructing structures like bridges, harbours, roads, airports, canal works and so on. The most prominent feature of vibratory pile drivers is the sound power level. Impact hammers are very noisy owing to the fact that they make use of being overweight to impact.

Vibratory Hammer

Excavator Mounted Vibratory Hammers

An excavator mounted vibratory hammer is used to drive or extract a variety of steel profiles; sheet piles, H-beams, and I-beams and with the larger Excavator Mounted Vibratory Hammers fitted with double clamps, casings and tubular piles can be driven. Our Vibratory Hammer have a very narrow throat width that allows you to carry out staggered sheet piling, and with a wide range of Vibratory Hammers and clamps we have the solution for all types of steel, wood and concrete piles and soil conditions. An additional range of Variable Moment / Resonance Free models allows you to drive steel piles with less disturbance on vibration-sensitive projects. Their extreme flexibility, due to the excavator powering, makes this kind of Vibratory Hammer our most agile piece of equipment – especially in compact spaces

Excavator Mounted Vibratory Hammer

Diesel Hammers

A modern range of diesel hammers Designed for a wide range of piling projects with an extensive assortment of drive caps and accessories, these packages provide the most productive and reliable packages available. Diesel pile hammers are extremely rugged and reliable and are used for driving on different pile types including H-Piles and Steel Sheet Piles. They are used to drive piles into a supporting soil layer. The mode of operation is similar to that of a hammer used to drive a nail. The piston activates the pump lever during its fall. The diesel fuel is then sprayed onto the surface of the impact block while the air in the cylinder is compressed as the piston runs past the exhaust openings. The strongly increased compression pressure drives the piston and the impact head below it onto the material being driven, driving the pile efficiently into the soil and atomizing the diesel fuel. Modern diesel pile hammers are equipped with adjustable fuel pumps to regulate the stroke of the piston and therefore, the impact energy. This is a particular advantage when soil formations change.

Diesel Hammer

Sheet pile pusher Hammers

Sheet pile pusher hammers provide an excellent alternative to a vibratory pile driver. It is suitable for the static pressing and extracting of cold-rolled interlock steel sheet piles as well as hot-rolled U and Z steel sheet piles in different system widths. Depending upon the geological situation, high daily production rates can typically be achieved and the system is a genuine alternative to the Soldier Beam Wall with H-beams, particularly if a high ground-water level represents a problem.

Sheet pile pusher Hammer

Drop Hammers

A drop hammer is lifted up by rope and dropped freely on the pile head. The hammer derives its power from the kinetic energy of a ram and the upper portion of the mold put into motion. For driving piles, a drop hammer is convenient to change energy input easily to cater for the range of penetration required. A drop hammer is easy to operate and requires no specialized power source but uses the main hoist of the pile rig. The lack of mechanical parts makes for the simplest of maintenance requirements. Drop hammers are commonly used to drive bearing piles.

Drop Hammer

Conclusion

Different types of pile drivers are used based on the conditions of the ground and method being used. These machines use rams to press the pile into the ground instead of smashing it from above. To achieve this, contractors may need to drive hammers as per project requirements. Importance should be taken to avoid excessive driving, which can lead to pile damage and/or foundation cost overruns. Take expert geotechnical advice and trusted pile driving hammers manufacturers before undertaking project execution.

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